1999!, we examined maternal and paternal parenting separately and expected stronger relations for maternal socialization.

However, it is important to remember that maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy has other consequences in addition to prenatal nicotine exposure.


Most of the studies examining caregiving have focused on maternal caregiving and have used retrospective ratings.

First, it was notable that we failed to find an association between maternal attachment status and infant attachment security.

Two observers coded maternal and child behaviors on a variety of 7-point scales.

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Moreover, these deficits are operative irrespective of maternal depression.

While the primary independent variable in this study was prenatal stress, all of the subjects were peer reared to avoid differential maternal treatment.

Major depression was associated with not being breast fed and maternal emotional problems during the pregnancy.

A total of 33 maternal and child behaviors were rated by independent observers on 5- and 9-point scales.

Here, we examine the potential moderating effects of security of attachment and maternal depressive symptoms on child depression.

Distributions for maternal and paternal anger had modal values of zero, with significant positive skewness and kurtosis for paternal anger.

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Separate direct discriminant function analyses were performed using maternal or paternal variables as predictors of membership in the two groups.

In this study, we examined variations in security of attachment behavior, maternal depression symptoms, and economic resources.

A multiple regression analysis revealed that security of attachment, maternal depressive symptomatology, and economic risk accounted for 47% of the variability in children’s depression scores.

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Even today, maternal mortality ranges from 10-2 5 %12’33’34 with seventenths of deaths occurring between the first month of the puerperium.

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. [external_footer]

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