Approximately 3 kg of fresh litter obtained from the removal-treatment plots and the surrounding area was added to the addition-treatment plots.

This study reveals the importance of litter-cover on the interactions between seedlings, herbivores and pathogens, as well as on the performance of tropical seedlings.


In their studies, litter turnover was estimated using litterfall and litter mass fractions >2 mm.

Measuring decomposition, nutrient turnover, and stores in plant litter.

These data are representative of assays performed with two independent litters of rat pups.

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Top and sides of the enclosures were covered with 0.1-mm mesh screen to prevent migration of litter invertebrates and toads.

The experimental litter depths at each exclosure corresponded to the depths determined from natural chowchilla disturbances in that location.

The possible removal of fruits or seeds from litter traps by animals was carefully monitored and considered insignificant.

The piglets were obtained from 14 litters of 1-5 parity sows.

However, few studies have quantified the effects of specific litter-disturbing vertebrates on living seedlings.

Breeding data were compiled from litters that were complete at classification and analysed using maximum likelihood methods.

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These surface fires are deceptively unimpressive, creeping along the ground as a thin ribbon of flames burning through the leaf litter.

Still, solute concentrations obtained by zero-tension litter percolate collectors and suction cups are not totally comparable.

The species composition and the numbers of individuals and species of oribatid mites in the litter were affected by the size of the ferns.

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Females produced eight-offspring litters (four males and four females), giving each site 40 progeny.

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